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RICHARDSON,J.R. & GREY,J.E. 1844-75. The zoology of the voyage of HMS Erebus & Terror 1839-1843. Vol III Fishes, Crustacea, Insects, Mollusca. Janson, London.
RICHARDSON,P. 1976. Freshwater tortoises and lizards of the Bundaberg region. Herpetofauna 8 (2):14-15.
RIDLEY,N.H. 1899. The habits of Malay reptiles. J. Straits Branch Roy.Asiatic Soc. 32:185-210.
RIEPPEL,O. 1979. A functional interpretation of the varanid dentition. Morphol. Jharb. 125:797-817.
RIEPPEL,O. & LABHARDT,L. 1979. Mandibular mechanics in Varanus niloticus. Herpetologica 35 (2): 158-163.
RILEY,J., STIMSON,A.F. & WINCH,J.M. 1985. A review of Squamata ovipositing in ant and termite nests.Herpet.Rev. 16 (2): 38-43.
RJUMIN,A.V. 1968The Ecology of the Desert Monitor (Varanus griseus) in southern Turkmenistan. (In Russian) Herpetology of Middle Asia 1968: 28-31.
ROBERTS,B. 1985. Trip Report: Uro Bluff, Kingoonya, Cariewerloo October 1984. South Australian Herp. Group Newsletter. 1985 (July):6-9.
ROBINSON ET AL. 1985. Reevsby Island Goanna (Varanus rosenbergi). A problem in conservation management. S.Aus.Nat. 59(4);56-62.
RODER,A. & HORN,H.G. 1994. Uber zwei Nachzuchten des Steppenwarans (Varanus exanthematicus). Salamandra 30 (2):97-108.#
ROKYLLE,G. 1989. An addition to the ranges of two rock monitors: Varanus glauerti and Varanus gleboplama. Herpetofauna 19 (1): 25-26.
ROMER,J.D.1963. Occurrence of Varanus salvator in Hong Kong.  Mem.Hong Kong N.H.S.6:12
ROOM,P.M. 1974. Lizards and snakes from the Northern District of Papua New Guinea.Brit J. Herpet. 5(3):438-446.
ROOSEVELT, T. 1910. African Game Trails. Macmillan Co. N.Y.
ROOT,A. 1978. Castles of Clay. Film documentary. Survival Television, Anglia.
ROSE,A.B. 1974. Gut contents of some amphibians and reptiles. Herpetofauna 7 (1):4-8.
ROSE,W. 1962. Reptiles and Amphibians of Southern Africa. Maskew Miller, Cape Town.
ROTTER,J. 1963. Die Warane (Varanidae). Die Neue Brehm Bucherei, Heft 325, Wittenberg, Lutherstadt. 75p.
ROWELL,A.J. 1994. Keeping and breeding Bosc's monitor lizard in captivity. Newsletter of Milton Keynes Herp. Soc. May 1994.
ROWE-ROWE,D.T. 1977. Oikos 28: 210-219. Food ecology of otters in Natal, South Africa.
RUEGG,R. 1973. Bull.Zool.Garten Basel 31:6-7. Vivarium, Nachzucht beim Timor-Waran (in German).
RUEGG,R. 1974.Aquarium mit Aquaterra. 8(62):360-363. The breeding of Varanus timorensis similis. In German.#
RUPPELL. 1830. Altas Reise nordl. Afr. Rept. 21:6.
SABNIS,P. & RANGENKAR,P. 1967. J.Biol.Sci. 10:14-19. Some observations on the morphology of pancreatic islets and fasting blood sugar levels in lizards with particular reference to Varanus monitor.
SAHA,B.K. 1983. Bengal myths about lizards. Hamadryad 1983 8 (1):19.
SALIM,A. 1944. The courtship of the monitor lizard  Varanus monitor. J. Bombay N.H.S,. 44:479-480.
SARKAR,S.U. 1987. Crocodiles and lizards of Siragonj (Pabna) Bangladesh. Tigerpaper. 14 (4):30-32.
SASSI,N.N. 1993. Adeno carcinoma in Varanus monitor. Indian Vet. Journal 70(8):775.
SAUTEREAU,L. & BITTER,P de. 1980. Notes sur l'elevage et la reproduction en captivite du varan de Timor (Sauria-Varanidae). Bull.Soc.Herp.Fr. 15:4-9. #
SAXENA,R. 1993. Conservation status of common Indian monitor (Varanus bengalensis) in north Madhya Pradesh. Cobra 12 (April-June):3-5.
SCHIFFER,H. 1967. Varanus acanthurus brachyurus. Zoologischer Garten (NF) 33 (5):262-264
SCHILDGER,B. 1992. Zur Ultraschalldiagnostik bei Reptilien. Monitor/Frankfurt 1(1):33-37.
SCHILDGER,B.J. & WICKER,R. 1992. Endoskopie bei Reptilien und Amphibien - Indikationen, Methoden, Befunde. Der praktische Tierarzt 6:516-526.
SCHILDGER,B.J., KRAMER,M. SPORLE,H. GERWING,M. & WICKER,R. 1993. Vergleichende beildgebende Ovardiagnostik bei Echsen am Beispeil des Chuckwallas (Sauromalus obesus) und des Arguswarans (Varanus panoptes). Salamandra 29(3/4):240-247.
SCHMIDA,G.E. 1971 Der getupfeite Baumwaran Australiens, Varanus timorensis similis. Aqua Terra Z. 24:168-170. #
SCHMIDA,G.E. 1974. . Der Kurzschwanzwaran (Varanus brevicauda). Aqua Terra Z27(11): 390-394 #
SCHMIDA,G.E. 1975. Daumlinge aus der Familie der Riesen (Varanus brevicauda, V.caudolineatus und V.gilleni). Aquarien. 9(1):8-11.
SCHMIDA,G.E. 1976. Varanus acanthurus brachyurus. Aquarium mit Aquaterra. 10(4):138-139.
SCHMIDA,G.E. 1978. Schutzenfische und Wasserwaran: Freiland beobachtungen in Australien. Aquarien magazin. 12 (2):60-65.
SCHMIDA,G. 1985. The cold Blooded Australians. Doubleday, Sydney.
SCHMIDT,K.P. 1919. Contributions to the Herpetology of the Belgium Congo based on the collection of the American Museum Expedition 1909-1915. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 385-624.
SCHMIDT,K.P. 1927. The reptiles of Hainan. Bull.Amer.Mus.Nat.Hist.54 (3):395-551.
SCHMIDT,K.P. 1933. Ann. Carnagie Mus. XXII:1-15. Reptiles of the Purlitzer Angola expedition.
SCHMIDT,K.P. & MARX,H. 1956. Fieldana Zool. 39(4). Herpetology of the Sinai.
SCHMIDT,K.P. & MARX,H. 1957. Bull. Zool. Soc. Egypt. 13:16-27. Results of Namru-3 southeastern Egypt Expedition, 1954. 2, Reptiles and amphibians.
SCHMUTZ,P.E. & HORN,H.G. 1986. Der Lebensraum von Varanus (Odatria) t.timorensis. Salamandra 22(2-3): 147-156. #
SCHULTZE-WESTRUM,T.H. 1972. Neuguinea. Kummelly und Frey, Bern.
SCHURER,U. & HORN,H.G. 1976. Freiland und Gefangenschaftsbeobachtungen am australische wasserwaran, Varanus mertensi. Salamandra 12(4):176-188. #
SCHWANER,T.D. 1985. The eradication of a native animal from an island reserve - A critical assessment of the Reevesby Island goanna case history. (Varanus rosenbergi). S.Aus.Nat. 59(4): 52-55.
SCHWENK,K. 1985. Occurrence, distribution and functional significance of taste buds in lizards. Copeia (1):91-101.
SELBERT,P. 1994. The Komodo dragon. A flagship species for the St. Louis Zoo. Reptile and Amphibian magazine Sept/Oct:73-81.
SENAPATI,N. 1980. In the wilds of Orissa. K. Banerjee, Calcutta.
SHAMMAKOV,S. 1981. Reptiles of the plains of Turkmenistan. Acad.Nauk.Turk.SSR, Ashkabad. 312p. In Russian #
SHARMA,R.C. 1982. Taxonomic and ecological studies on the reptiles of Gujarat. Rec.Zool.Surv.India  80:85-106.
SHARMA,R.C. & SINGH,C. 1976. Records of some little known reptiles from Afghanistan. Newsletter Zool.Surv.India 2(2): 70-74.
SHARMA,R.C. & VAZIRANI,T.G. 1977. Food and feeding habits of some reptiles of Rajasthan. Rec.Zool.Soc. India 73:77-93.
SHARRAD,R.D. & KING,D.R. The geographical distribution of reptile ticks in Western Australia. Aust. J. Zool. 29:861-873.
SHAW,C.E. 1963. Notes on the eggs, incubation and young of some African reptiles. Brit.J.Herpet. 3(4):63-70.
SHEA,G.M. 1994. Three species of goanna occur in the Sydney baisin. Herpetofauna 24(2):14-18.
SHEA,G.M. & REDDACLIFF,G.L. 1986.  Ossifications in the Hemipenes of Varanids. Journal of Herpetology. 20(4):568-570.
SHEA,G., WEIGEL,J., HARWOOD,A., FLORIANI,H. & HEMSLEY,C. 1988. Notes on the herpetofauna of Mitchell Plateau, WA. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 18(1):10-20.
SHINE,R. 1986. Foot habits, habitats and reproductive biology of four sympatric species of Varanus. Biotropica 42 (3):346-360.
SHINE,R. 1986. Diet and abundances of aquatic and semi aquatic reptiles in the Alligator Rivers region. Tech.Memo Superv. Sci. Alligator Rivers. Reg.no.16:1-52.
SIGHTS,W.P. 1949. List of reptiles taken in western Bengal. Herpetology  5(4):81-83.
SILVA,K. 1966. Southern migrants to Lov Island, Manus, T.P.N.G. Australian Bird Watcher 2:220-221.
SIMONETTA,A.M. & MAGNONI,M.L. 1986. Status and conservation problems of Somali lower vertebrates. Rivista de Agricoltura Subtropicale e tropicale. 80(3):405-432
SINCLAIR,A.G. & ALEXANDER,R.M. 1987. Estimates of forces exerted by the jaw muscles of some reptiles. J. Zool (London) 213 (1): 107-115.
SLAVENS,F.L. 1985 onwards. Inventory of live Reptiles and Amphibians in Captivity. Seattle, Washington.
SLEBERT,P. 1994. The Komodo dragon. A flagship species for the St. Louis Zoo. Reptile and Amphibian Magazine Sept/Oct.
SLEIJPEN,F. 1982.  De (Var-)aanhouder wint!(Varanus salvator). Lacerta. May (40E):160-163.
SMITH,H.C. 1931. Monitor lizards of Burma. J.Bombay Nat.Hist.Soc. 34:367-373.
SMITH,L.A. 1976. The reptiles of Barrow Island.  West. Aus. Nat. 13 (6):125-136.
SMITH,K.K. 1982 An electronmyographic study of the function of jaw adducting muscles in Varanus exanthematicus. J.Morph. 173:137-158.
SMITH,K.K. 1986. Journal of Morphology 187; 261-287. Morphology and function of the tongue and hyoid apparatus in Varanus (Varanidae, Lacertilia).
SMITH,K.K. & HYLANDER,W.L. 1985. Strain gauge measurement of mesokinetic movement in the lizard Varanus exanthematicus. J.Exp.Biol. 114:53-70.
SMITH,L.A. 1976. The reptiles of Barrow Island. Western Australian Naturalist. 13(6):125-136.
SMITH,L.A. 1988. Notes on a clutch of monitor (Varanus caudolineatus) eggs. W. Aus. Nat. 17 (4):96.
SMITH,L.A. & JOHNSTONE,R.E. 1981. Amphibians and reptiles of Mitchell Plateau and adjacent coast and lowlands, Kimberley: Western Australia. IN Biological Survey of Mitchell Plateau and Admiralty Gulf, Kimberley, Western Australia. W. Aus. Mus. Publication part 6: 215-227.
SMITH,M. 1927. Contribution to the herpetology of Indo-Australian region. Proc. Zool. Soc.London:199
SMITH,M.A. 1932. Some notes on the monitors. J.Bombay Nat.Hist.Soc. 56:615-619.
SMITH,M.A. 1935. Reptiles and Amphibia Vol 2 Sauria. In  The Fauna of British India, Taylor and Francis Ltd. London.
SMITH,M.J. 1976. Small fossil vertebrates from Victoria Cave, Naracoorte, S.A. IV: Reptiles. Trans. Royal Soc. South Australia. 100(1):39-51.
SMITH,M.J. 1982. Reptiles from late Pleistocene deposits on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Trans. Royal Soc. South Australia. 106(2):61-66.
SNIDER,A.T. & J.K.BOWLER 1992. Longevity of reptiles and amphibians in North American collections. SSAR. Herp. Circular no.21.
SOKOLOV,V.E., SUKHOV,V.P. & CHERNYSHOV,Y.M. 1975. Radiotelemetric study of diurnal temperature fluctuations of body temperature in Varanus griseus. (In Russian). Zool. Zurnal Moscow. 54:1347-1356.
SOPYEV,O, MAKEEV,V.M., KUDRYAVTSEV,S.V, & MAKAROV,A.N. 1987. Case of intoxification from a bite of Varanus griseus. Izv.Akad.Nauk.Turm.SSR. Ser Biol Nauk: 87 (1): 78.
SPATZ,P. 1931. Wustenwaran (Varanus griseus). Das Aquarium. 1931: 160-162.
SPELLERBERG,I.F. 1972. Temperature tolerances of south eastern Australian reptiles examined in relation to reptile thermoregulatory behaviour and distribution. Oecologia (Berlin). 9:23-46.
SPRACKLAND,R.G. 1976. Notes on Dumeril's water monitor, Varanus dumerilli. Sarawak. Mus.J. 45:287-291.
SPRACKLAND,R. 1980. Some note on Storr's dwarf spiny tailed monitor. Kansas Herp. Soc. Newsletter 40:7-9.
SPRACKLAND,R.G. 1982. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter 47; 15-18. Feeding and nutrition of monitor lizards in captivity and in the wild.
SPRACKLAND,R.G. 1982. Varanus monitor, an invalid name for Varanus bengalensis. Herp. Review 13 (4):117.
SPRACKLAND, R.G. 1989. Mating and waiting: A status report on reproduction in captive monitor lizards (Sauria:Varanidae). Captive propogation and husbandry NCHS 1989:57-63
SPRACKLAND, R.G. 1989. Captive maintainence of green tree monitors (Varanus prasinus) and their kin. Captive propogation and husbandry NCHS 1989:49-56.
SPRACKLAND,R. 1990. A preliminary study of food discrimination in monitor lizards (Reptilia:Lacertilia:Varanidae). Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 25(10):181-183.
SPRACKLAND,R.G. 1991. The origin and zoogeography of monitor lizards of the subgenus Odatria Gray (SAURIA: Varanidae): A Re-Evaluation. Mertensiella 2:240-252.
SPRACKLAND,R.G. 1991. Taxonomic review of the Varanus prasinus group with descriptions of two new species. Mem. Queensland Mus. 30(3):561-576.
 SPRACKLAND,R.G. 1992. Giant Lizards. TFH, Neptune, N.J. 288p.
SPRACKLAND,R. 1993. Rediscovery of a Solomons Islands monitor lizards (Varanus indicus spinulosus). Mertens, 1941. The Vivarium 4 (5):25-27.
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STAMMER,D. 1970. Goannas. Wildl. Austr. 7:118-120.
STAMMER,D. 1976. Reptiles: 131-159 in HORTON,H. Around Mt. Isa. a guide to the flora and fauna. University Queensland Press, St Lucia. 181pp.
STAMMER,D. 1981. Some notes on the cane toad (Bufo marinus). Aust. J. Herpet. 1 (2):61.
STAMMER,D. 1983. Letter to the editor; Varanus tristis orientalis.Herpetofauna 14 (2): 91.
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STANNER,M. 1985. Israel Ld.Nat. 10(4):142-145. Monitoring the desert monitor.
STANNER,M. & MENDLESSOHN,H.1983. Activity patterns and habit utilisation of Varanus  griseus in the sand dunes south of Holon, Israel. . Israel.J.Zool.32:164.
STANNER,M. & MENDELSSOHN,H. 1986. I.J.Zool. 34 (1-2):67-75. The diet of Varanus griseus in the southern coastal plain of Israel.
STANNER,M. & MENDELSSOHN,H. 1987. Sex ratios, population density and home range of Varanus griseus in the southern coastal range of Israel. Amphibia-Reptilia. 8 (2):153-163.
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STANNER,M. & MENDELSSOHN,H. 1991. Activity patterns of the Desert monitor (Varanus griseus) in the Southern Coastal Plain of Israel. Mertensiella 2:253-262.
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STORR,G.M. 1980. The monitor lizards of Western Australia. Rec.West Aus.Mus. 8:237-293
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STORR,G.M., HANLON,T.M.S. & DUNLOP,J.N. 1983. Herpetofauna of the Geralton Region, Western Australia.  Rec. West. Aus. Mus. 8 (3):215-234.
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STORR,G.M. & HAROLD,G. 1980. Herpetofauna of Exmouth region of W.A. and Zuydorp Coast and hinterland,W.A. Rec.West Aus.Mus. 8(3): 359-375.
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The Butaan Project - Foraging behaviour

butaan7.jpgWe use feces to investigate diet and activity areas of butaan. In total we have examined more than 1500 samples, possibly the largest ever collected for a single population of reptiles.  Butaan and their relatives are huge specialised frugivores, much bigger than any other specialised frugivorous animal in  the Philippines. They need a constant supply of fruit but lack the wings that allow other frugivores to forage in different forest fragments. Large and immobile, the butaan depends on a very narrow range of foods.



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